The insurrection was led by a rural priest named Mattathias, and his military adherents became known as the Maccabees as a result of their exploits in battle.
Mattathias was the instigator of the revolt when he prevented a Jew from offering sacrifice to a pagan deity and subsequently murdered a member of the king’s guard. Mattathias and his family were able to flee to the hills, where they were joined by a large number of other devoted Jews.
215 bce—164 bce, Tabae, Iran), Seleucid monarch of the Hellenistic Syrian kingdom who ruled from 175 to 164 bce in the Hellenistic Syrian kingdom. When it came to ruling, he was most renowned for his advocacy of Greek culture and institutional development. His attempts to suppress Judaism resulted in the outbreak of the Wars of the Maccabees (Maccabean Wars).
It is widely agreed that the Temple was respected and in some cases funded by Judaea’s foreign rulers during the Persian and Hellenistic periods (4th–3rd centuries BCE). But Antiochus IV Epiphanes looted it in 169 BCE and desecrated it in 167 BCE by ordering that sacrifices to Zeus be conducted on an altar that had been constructed in his honor.
What was it that Simon Maccabeus was able to achieve? He strove to appease Rome by putting a halt to any local initiatives to liberate Judea from Rome’s authority. He was unsuccessful. What caused some Jews to have mistrust in Herod the Great?
|Antiochus V Eupator|
|Reign||November/December 164 – 161 BC|
|Predecessor||Antiochus IV Epiphanes|
|Successor||Demetrius I Soter|
|Significance||The Maccabees successfully revolted against Antiochus IV Epiphanes. According to the Talmud, a later text, the Temple was purified and the wicks of the menorah miraculously burned for eight days, even though there was only enough sacred oil for one day’s lighting.|
When the First Temple was erected in 1000 BC by King Solomon after King David captured Jerusalem and established it as his capital, the time was known as the First Temple period (1200-586 BC). When Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, seized Jerusalem in 586 BC, he demolished the Temple and the surrounding area.
As part of his conquest of Jerusalem in 167 BC, Antiochus IV (Epiphanes), the king of Syria desecrated the Temple by performing the sacrifice of a pig on an altar to the god Zeus (the Abomination of Desolation).
As a result, he was given the title Basileus Megas (Greek for ″Great King″), which was the typical title given to Persian monarchs. The Seleucid Emperor Antiochus IV was a militarily active monarch who rebuilt much of the Seleucid Empire’s territory before suffering a significant defeat in his fight against the Roman Empire near the end of his reign.
John Hyrcanus I was a Roman emperor. His reign saw the Hasmonean kingdom of Judaea in ancient Palestine grow to prominence and wealth, and the Pharisees, a learned sect with widespread support, and the Sadducees, an aristocratic sect that included the priests, both established themselves as distinct religious groups.
Herodias the Great was the king of Judaea for four years, from 37 BCE to 4 BCE. He was chosen by the Roman Empire when the Senate of that country provided him with an army to repel a Parthian invasion. He had served as governor of Galilee since 47 BCE, and he was killed during the invasion.
Herod escaped to Rome, where he pleaded with the Romans to restore Hyrcanus II to his rightful place as emperor. As a result of Pompey the Great’s conquest of Jerusalem in 63 BCE, the Romans took a particular interest in Judea. This was because Judea had been placed into the Roman sphere of influence as a result of the conquest.
Roman military siege of Jerusalem during the First Jewish Revolt in 70 CE is known as the Siege of Jerusalem. In many ways, the fall of the city signaled the effective completion of a four-year battle against the Jewish guerrilla movement in Judaea. The Romans demolished much of the city, including the Second Temple, during their occupation.
|Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator||95–92 BC or 83 BC||Cleopatra Selene I|
|Demetrius III Eucaerus (or Philopator)||95–87 BC|
|Antiochus XI Epiphanes Philadelphus||95–92 BCE|
|Philip I Philadelphus||95–84/83 BC|
Jerusalem is under siege (63 BC)
|Siege of Jerusalem|
|Pompey in the Temple of Jerusalem, Jean Fouquet 1470-1475|
|Date 63 BC Location Jerusalem Result Roman victory Judea incorporated into the Roman Republic|
|Roman Republic||Hasmonean Kingdom|