Gastric pH decreases in the elderly, which in the case of some medications changes the solubility and, as a result, will impair the rate of absorption of the medication. A decrease in intestinal blood flow is also seen, which has the potential to delay or restrict medication absorption.
]. The gastrointestinal system (GIS) is affected by aging in all of its processes, including motility, enzyme and hormone release, digesting, and absorption. The GIS also plays an important role in the absorption and metabolism of medications, and it is frequently impacted by adverse effects of medications.
Intestinal medication absorption may be influenced by age-related changes in intestinal permeability as well as the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters, according to recent research.
Absorption is hampered by the overly fast movement of the GIT. Because of the movement of the GIT wall, the drug particle may easily come into touch with the mucosa and be absorbed; but, because of the rapid movement of the GIT wall, the drug particle is not able to come into contact with the mucosa and be absorbed. 2. Ionization and stomach emptying are two important processes in the body.
The amount of nutrient absorbed remains mostly stable in later adulthood; nonetheless, there are certain significant alterations to consider that are connected to aging. Age-related changes can make it more difficult to absorb nutrients because of decreasing blood flow to the tissues and gastrointestinal system, as well as changes in stomach pH. (Marieb & Hoehn, 2016).
Constipation. Food is moved through our bodies by a sequence of muscular contractions, which are carried out by our digestive system. As we become older, this process may become more sluggish. This results in a greater amount of water from the food being absorbed into the body, which might cause constipation in certain people.
Gastric emptying rate and intestinal motility, the pH of the gastrointestinal fluids, the activity of gastrointestinal drug metabolising enzymes (e.g. monoamine oxidase and dopa decarboxylase) or drug metabolising bacteria, and the surface area of the gut are all physiological factors that influence oral drug absorption.
The body becomes more vulnerable to a wide range of health diseases and disorders as it grows older. Many body systems, including your digestive tract, slow down as you become older; it may not operate as efficiently or as rapidly as it used to, but it will still function. The muscles of the digestive system grow stiffer, weaker, and less efficient as a result of the disease process.
Absorption. Despite the fact that several gastrointestinal changes occur with age, such as higher stomach pH, delayed gastric emptying, decreased intestinal motility, and decreased splanchnic blood flow, medication absorption changes only a little amount, as shown in the table below.
There are five actions you may do to help your digestion.
The solubility of lipids, the pH of the medium, the existence of membrane transporters, and the density of membrane transporters all have an impact on the rate of absorption. It is necessary to use several routes of medication administration in order to optimize the amount of drug absorbed and to expedite the commencement of action of pharmaceuticals.
Meals, particularly fatty food, has been shown to impede gastric emptying (and hence the rate of drug absorption), which may explain why taking certain medications on an empty stomach speeds up absorption. Pharmaceuticals that have an effect on stomach emptying (for example, parasympatholytic drugs) have an effect on the pace at which other drugs are absorbed.
Because of changes in immune response and gastrointestinal physiology associated with age, as well as the use of immunosuppressive or acid-suppressive medicines and the presence of concomitant diseases, elderly adults may be more susceptible to gastroenteritis and food-borne illnesses.
Muscles that are deteriorating As you become older, your muscles become weaker. And that includes the lower esophageal sphincter, which is crucial in preventing heartburn. Food travels down your neck and into your esophagus before reaching your stomach. This sphincter is in charge of controlling the entrance between the esophagus and the stomach, and it is located in the lower stomach.
Consuming a diet that is too low in fiber and fluid, not getting enough physical activity, medication side effects (e.g., opiates, tricyclic antidepressants, calcium channel blockers), certain supplements (calcium and iron), irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal obstructions or strictures from surgery, and diabetes are all factors that contribute to constipation.