Causes of postmenopausal bleeding include: endometrial carcinoma; cervical carcinoma; vaginal atrophy; endometrial hyperplasia +/- polyp; cervical polyps; hormone-producing ovarian tumours; haematuria and rectal bleeding.
Vaginal bleeding in senior adults always needs to be examined. It may come from fragile tissue in the vagina. It may be a benign growth like a polyp on the cervix or inside the uterus. A somewhat frequent cause of bleeding in this age group though is actually abnormal cells, including cancer cells, inside the uterus.
Causes of postmenopausal bleeding The most common causes are: inflammation and thinning of the vaginal lining ( atrophic vaginitis ) or womb lining (endometrial atrophy) – caused by lower oestrogen levels. cervical or womb polyps – growths that are usually non-cancerous.
Essentials for Older Women Postmenopausal bleeding (occurring more than 6 months after menopause) is relatively common but is always considered abnormal. Such bleeding can indicate a precancerous disorder (such as thickening of the lining of the uterus) or cancer.
Vaginal bleeding between periods is not usually a cause for concern. If the blood flow is light, it is called ‘spotting. ‘ Bleeding between periods can have a range of causes, including hormonal changes, injury, or an underlying health condition.
Symptoms of postmenopausal bleeding
Moderate to severe prolapse may cause symptoms, such as: the feeling that you’re sitting on a ball. vaginal bleeding.
Why It Is Done Dilation and curettage (D&C) may be used to: Find and treat bleeding problems. Control sudden, heavy vaginal bleeding that is causing heavy blood loss or a low number of red blood cells (anemia). Get a tissue sample for testing.
In the elderly (age ≥65 years), hemorrhoids and colorectal cancer are the most common causes of minor bleeding. Peptic ulcer, diverticular disease, and angiodysplasia are the most common causes of major bleeding. Approximately 35% to 45% of all cases of acute upper GI hemorrhage occur in elderly persons.
During the childbearing years, the cause is sometimes a foreign object (such as a forgotten tampon). But in this age group, a discharge seldom results from inflammation alone (without infection). In older women, urine or stool may irritate the area around the genitals and anus, resulting in a vaginal discharge.
Examples of tests used to diagnose the cause of postmenopausal bleeding include: Dilation and curettage (D&C): This procedure involves dilating or widening the cervix to obtain a larger tissue sample. It also involves using a special tool called a hysteroscope to see inside the uterus to identify any potential growths.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can cause bleeding, although the blood doesn’t come from the cervix in these cases. They are common in sexually active women (although they’re not sexually transmitted). A number of bacteria can cause UTIs, most commonly bacteria which is normally found in the gut.
There are three main types of bleeding: arterial, venous, and capillary bleeding. Arterial bleeding occurs in the arteries, which transport blood from the heart to the body. Venous bleeding happens in the veins, which carry blood back to the heart.
Whether high blood pressure causes an increased risk of nosebleeds remains a topic of debate. Although high blood pressure isn’t known to directly cause nosebleeds, it’s probable that it may cause the blood vessels in your nose to be more susceptible to damage and increase bleeding time.
ABSTRACT: Drug-induced bleeding presents in many ways, including excessive bruising, nosebleeds, heavy menses, gastrointestinal bleeding, and rectal bleeding. Drug-induced bleeding is potentiated by numerous drugs, natural medicines, and drug-drug interactions.