Hyponatremia in elderly subjects is mainly caused by drugs (more frequently thiazides and antidepressants), the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIAD) or endocrinopathies; however, hyponatremia is multifactorial in a significant proportion of patients.
Those who have mild to moderate hyponatremia resulting from lifestyle factors or medication may be able to increase sodium to normal levels by: drinking less fluids (often less than 1 quart per day) adjusting medication dose or switching medications.
Hyponatremia is decrease in serum sodium concentration < 136 mEq/L (< 136 mmol/L) caused by an excess of water relative to solute. Common causes include diuretic use, diarrhea , heart failure , liver disease, renal disease, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).
In patients with severe symptomatic hyponatremia , the rate of sodium correction should be 6 to 12 mEq per L in the first 24 hours and 18 mEq per L or less in 48 hours.
In elderly patients with a diet poor in protein and sodium , hyponatremia may be worsened by their low solute intake. The kidney’s need to excrete solutes aids in water excretion. An increase in dietary protein and salt can help improve water excretion.
Hyponatremia treatments may include changing a medication that affects your sodium level, treating the underlying disease, changing the amount of water you drink or changing the amount of salt in your diet.
Who is most at risk for hyponatremia? Anyone can develop hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is more likely in people living with certain diseases, like kidney failure, congestive heart failure , and diseases affecting the lungs, liver or brain . It often occurs with pain after surgery.
A low sodium level has many causes , including consumption of too many fluids, kidney failure, heart failure, cirrhosis, and use of diuretics. Symptoms result from brain dysfunction.
Patients with hyponatremia had a hospital stay of 7.6 days compared with 5.6 days for those with normonatremia, a significant difference between the groups. Hyponatremia at the time of hospital admission is associated with an increased risk of death and longer in-patient stays, according to a new study.
Complications related to hyponatremia include rhabdomyolysis, seizures, permanent neurologic sequelae related to ongoing seizures or cerebral edema, respiratory arrest, and death.
Overhydration can lead to water intoxication. This occurs when the amount of salt and other electrolytes in your body become too diluted. Hyponatremia is a condition in which sodium (salt) levels become dangerously low. This is the main concern of overhydration.
Acute hyponatremia is less common, and the goal is to return the sodium levels to normal to prevent cerebral edema and brain death. In most patients, if the source of excess water intake is eliminated, the body’s kidneys can correct the sodium abnormalities on its own .
The authors of the study report that hyponatremia symptoms can develop if a person drinks 3–4 liters of water in a short period, though they do not give a specific time estimate. According to one case report, soldiers developed symptoms after consuming at least 2 quarts (1.9 liters) of water per hour. 5 дней назад
Treatment for low blood sodium cutting back on fluid intake. adjusting the dosage of diuretics. taking medications for symptoms such as headaches, nausea, and seizures. treating underlying conditions. infusing an intravenous (IV) sodium solution.
Patients hospitalized for medical illnesses may develop a ” low sodium syndrome” due either to sodium depletion or to the presence of an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. This can be further aggravated by a low sodium diet and can lead to an acute psychotic reaction.