Hyponatremia in elderly subjects is mainly caused by drugs (more frequently thiazides and antidepressants), the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIAD) or endocrinopathies; however, hyponatremia is multifactorial in a significant proportion of patients.
In hyponatremia, the level of sodium in blood is too low . A low sodium level has many causes , including consumption of too many fluids, kidney failure, heart failure, cirrhosis, and use of diuretics. Symptoms result from brain dysfunction.
Treatment for low blood sodium cutting back on fluid intake. adjusting the dosage of diuretics. taking medications for symptoms such as headaches, nausea, and seizures. treating underlying conditions. infusing an intravenous (IV) sodium solution.
Who is most at risk for hyponatremia? Anyone can develop hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is more likely in people living with certain diseases, like kidney failure, congestive heart failure , and diseases affecting the lungs, liver or brain . It often occurs with pain after surgery.
Hyponatremia treatments may include changing a medication that affects your sodium level, treating the underlying disease, changing the amount of water you drink or changing the amount of salt in your diet.
In elderly patients with a diet poor in protein and sodium , hyponatremia may be worsened by their low solute intake. The kidney’s need to excrete solutes aids in water excretion. An increase in dietary protein and salt can help improve water excretion.
How is the sodium blood test done? This test is performed on a blood sample, obtained by venipuncture. A technician will insert a small needle into a vein on your arm or hand. This will be used to fill a test tube with blood.
High- Sodium Foods Smoked, cured, salted or canned meat, fish or poultry including bacon, cold cuts, ham, frankfurters, sausage, sardines, caviar and anchovies. Frozen breaded meats and dinners, such as burritos and pizza. Canned entrees, such as ravioli, spam and chili. Salted nuts. Beans canned with salt added.
Treatment Intravenous fluids. Your doctor may recommend IV sodium solution to slowly raise the sodium levels in your blood. Medications. You may take medications to manage the signs and symptoms of hyponatremia, such as headaches, nausea and seizures.
Hyponatremia occurs when sodium levels in the blood are too low . Symptoms include lethargy, confusion, and fatigue. It can result from underlying conditions, such as kidney failure, or other factors, such as drinking too much water or taking certain medications.
Although sodium may take longer to normalise within the brain and hence the neuropsychiatric symptoms take longer to resolve but serum levels should be corrected as advised earlier no faster than 10-12 mEq/L in 24 hrs . Levels lower than 105 mEq/L are prone to develop osmotic demyelination if corrected too rapidly.
Chronic caffeine intake increases urinary sodium excretion without affecting plasma sodium concentration .
In acute hyponatremia , sodium levels drop rapidly — resulting in potentially dangerous effects, such as rapid brain swelling, which can result in a coma and death. Premenopausal women appear to be at the greatest risk of hyponatremia -related brain damage.
Confusion, disorientation and drowsiness–common symptoms of low sodium –may masquerade as the symptoms of other neurological conditions in the elderly, such as vascular dementia or Alzheimer’s disease.
In cases of dilutional hyponatremia or water intoxication, there is an increase in the volume of blood fluid which leads to a relative reduction in the concentration of sodium . This can lead to symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, disorientation and frequent urination .