Cognition refers to the “higher” brain functions such as memory and reasoning. About half of all people with MS will not experience any cognitive changes , but for others, the most commonly affected aspects of cognition are: Abstract reasoning and problem solving. Visual spatial abilities.
Common causes of cognitive impairment in older adults include: Medication side-effects. “Metabolic imbalances.” This term refers to abnormalities in one’s blood chemistry. Problems with hormones, such as thyroid hormones. Deficiencies in vitamins and other key nutrients. Delirium. Psychiatric illness.
Some of the most common signs of cognitive disorder include: Confusion. Poor motor coordination . Loss of short-term or long-term memory. Identity confusion. Impaired judgment.
Cognitive Skills: Why The 8 Core Cognitive Capacities Sustained Attention . Response Inhibition . Speed of Information Processing . Cognitive Flexibility and Control. Multiple Simultaneous Attention . Working Memory . Category Formation. Pattern Recognition .
The Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a 30 -point questionnaire that is used extensively in clinical and research settings to measure cognitive impairment. It is commonly used in medicine and allied health to screen for dementia.
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The main distinctions between mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia are that in the latter, more than one cognitive domain is involved and substantial interference with daily life is evident. The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia is based mainly on the history and cognitive examination.
People with mild cognitive impairment are more forgetful than normal for their age, but they don’t experience other cognitive problems associated with dementia, such as disorientation or confusion about routine activities. Routine tasks such as paying bills, shopping, and meal preparation may become challenging.
The Seven Stages of Dementia Stage 1: No impairment. Stage 2: Very mild cognitive decline . Stage 3: Mild cognitive decline . Stage 4: Moderate cognitive decline . Stage 5: Moderately severe cognitive decline .
“Cognitive decline may begin after midlife, but most often occurs at higher ages ( 70 or higher).” (Aartsen, et al., 2002) “… relatively little decline in performance occurs until people are about 50 years old .” (Albert & Heaton, 1988).
If your test results were not normal, it means you have some problem with memory or other mental function. But it won’t diagnose the cause. Your health care provider may need to do more tests to find out the reason. Some types of cognitive impairment are caused by treatable medical conditions.
Signs of MCI include: Losing things often. Forgetting to go to events or appointments. Having more trouble coming up with words than other people of the same age .
Discover five simple, yet powerful, ways to enhance cognitive function, keep your memory sharp and improve mental clarity at any age. Adopt a growth mindset. Stay physically active. Manage emotional well-being. Eat for brain health. Restorative sleep.
Leafy greens such as kale, spinach, collards, and broccoli are rich in brain – healthy nutrients like vitamin K, lutein, folate, and beta carotene. Research suggests these plant-based foods may help slow cognitive decline. Fatty fish.
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